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STRUCTURE OF A SEALED UNIT

A sealed glass unit consists of glasses and partition bars between them. Depending on the number of glasses in the sealed unit, the units are marked as 2k (two glasses in the unit) or 3k (three glasses in the unit).

The glasses are counted from the outside to inside and glass surfaces are determined by numbers.

• The external surface of the external glass is no. 1 and internal surface is no. 2
• kThe external surface of the middle glass is no. 3 and the internal surface is no. 4
• The external surface of the internal glass is no. 5 and the internal surface is no. 6

The partition bars, or often called spacers, are made of aluminium or thermoplastic and the glazing is as a rule of thumb filled with 90% argon.
The U-value of the glass unit depends on the distance between the glasses in the glass unit (wideness of the spacer and its material), chosen glasses and the gasses used in the glazing.
In the glazing of windows and doors, most commonly used glass units consist of 4mm, 6mm and 8mm glasses.

Float glass – common float glass. The name “float glass” is derived from the nature of the production process, where liquid glass mass straight from the melting oven floats on a bed of molten tin and is further directed to the cooling section. The described manufacturing process gives the sheet uniformly flat and parallel surfaces and thus excellent optical quality. Practically any type of further processing is possible.

Energy saving glass (es) – previously called selective glass. Energy saving class is characterised by low emission. The surface of the glass is covered with a very thin metal layer (mostly argon), which is characterised by high transmittance of visible light and low thermal radiation ratio (infrared warm radiation). The lower the emission factor the less heat the glass transmits and the more effective are the heat insulation properties of the glass. The protective layer reduces heat loss in the room by 70%. The emitting properties of the modern energy-saving glasses are developed close to the levels of physical limits being 0.02-0.03, which means that the glass emits only 2-3% of heat.
The soft surface cover of the energy saving glass is scratch sensitive and is always turned inside in the sealed unit. In the 2-layer sealed unit the energy glass is usually the inner one, in the 3-layer unit the inner and outer ones. Marked with an abbreviation “es”.

Solar control glass – reduces solar energy coming through the glass. The solar heat and light energy reaching the glass is partially reflected back, partially absorbed in the glass and partially transmitted through the glass. Solar control glasses are divided in body tinted (absorbing) and coated (reflecting) glasses. Combination glasses, in which solar control function is also combined with energy saving function, are especially popular. The solar control function can also be combined with the other functions of the glass: sound insulation, self-cleaning, safety, etc.
The solar control glass is the most external one in the sealed unit.  The surface coating of the solar control and energy saving glass with combined properties is scratch sensitive and thus always installed towards the inside of the sealed unit. To avoid thermal breaking of body tinted solar control glasses (especially 6 mm) these need to be tempered.

Sound insulation glass – sound insulation depends on the use of glasses with different thickness in the sealed unit, on the use of laminated glass (special sound insulation film recommended) and on increasing the air gap between the glasses. The best results are obtained with the laminated glass provided with a special sound insulation film (3-4 dB better than the parameters of laminated glass with standard PVB interlayer).
The sound insulation function can also be combined with the other functions of the glass: energy saving, solar control, self-cleaning, safety, etc.

Personal safety glass – the function of this glass is to protect from possible injuries in case the glass is broken. These glasses are divided in two groups – tempered and laminated glasses.

The safety function can also be combined with the other functions of the glass: energy saving, solar control, sound insulation, self-cleaning, design, etc

Tempered glass –mechanically strong, thermal resistant and with extensive bending strength. The tempered glass is approx. 4-5 times stronger than standard glass and also thermally more resistant. Tempered glass is manufactured through a process of extreme heating up to 650° and rapid cooling. Tempered glass shatters into small oval-shaped pebbles when broken, which means it breaks safely.

Glasses that can break thermally must be tempered. Most of the glasses can be tempered, except glasses with soft surface coating and decorative glasses with deep pattern.

Laminated glass – consists of one or more glass layers, which are held in place by an interlayer, typically of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) elastic plastic. The interlayer keeps the layers of glass bonded even when broken and prevents thus danger of injuries and prevents the glass from breaking when falling down (a large opening from floor to ceiling, guards, parapets).

Also energy saving, solar control and sound insulation glasses can be manufactured as laminated.

Safety glass – the function of the safety glasses is to protect from external active intrusion (vandalism, burglary, fire arm attack). Laminated safety glass consists of one or more glass layers, which are held in place by an interlayer, typically of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) elastic plastic. The interlayer keeps the layers of glass bonded even when broken and thus protecting against vandalism and preventing intrusion, escaping or bullet attack. Safety glasses: vandalism P1A-P4A; intrusion P5A-P8B, bulletproof BR1-BR7

Glasses that can break thermally must be tempered. Most of the glasses can be tempered, except glasses with soft surface coating and decorative glasses with deep pattern.

Self-cleaning glass – the glass surface is covered with a transparent photocatalytic and hydrophilic coating. The glass functions thanks to two natural components: the sun and rain. The UV-rays ( they exist also in case of clouds) dissolve the dirt and thus it is easier to remove it. Rain washes the dissolved dirt away from the glass. Compared to standard glasses there are almost no streaks on the glass, instead water spreads evenly over the entire surface of the glass. Thus this glass remains cleaner after rain than standard glass.
The self-cleaning function can also be combined with the other functions of the glass: energy saving, solar control, safety, security, design, etc.

Silkscreened glass and roller coating – roller coated or silkscreened laminated glasses are suitable for designing the blind parts in the façade systems. Colour shades for roller coating are chosen as per RAL colour charts. Patterns are silkscreened according to the taste of the customer

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TALLINN, Pärnu mnt 158, 11317
Phone +372 65 65 405

TARTU, Tähe 133c, 50107
Phone +372 7 362 791, E-mail: lasita@lasita.ee

RĪGA, Latvia, Daugavgrīvas iela 23, Zemgales priekšpilsēta, LV-1048
Tel. +371 26193638

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